Statistics Canada has published an article on Police-reported hate crime in Canada, 2011:
"In Canada, four specific offences are listed as hate crimes in the Criminal Code:
advocating genocide, public incitement of hatred, wilful promotion of
hatred, and mischief in relation to religious property. In addition,
section 718.2(a)(i) of the Criminal Code allows for increased
penalties when sentencing any criminal offence (such as assault or
mischief) where there is evidence that the offence was motivated by
bias, prejudice or hatred toward a particular group."
"This report uses data from the 2011 Incident-based Uniform Crime
Reporting Survey (UCR2), which collects information from police
services, to examine police-reported hate crime in Canada. More
specifically, this report looks at the number of police-reported hate
crime incidents in various jurisdictions as well as the characteristics
of these incidents, victims, and those accused of these crimes. For
the survey, a hate crime is defined as a criminal offence committed
against a person or property, where there is evidence that the offence
was motivated by hate, based on the victim’s race, national or ethnic
origin, language, colour, religion, sex, age, mental or physical
disability, sexual orientation, or any other similar factor."
"Information on hate crimes is subject to reporting behaviour. The
number of incidents actually reported to police as hate crimes may be
influenced by public awareness and concern, as well as special hate
crime initiatives and policies among police services. This report looks
only at police-reported hate crimes, which likely underestimate the
true extent of hate crime of various types."
Among the highlights:
- There were 1,332 police-reported hate crime incidents
in Canada in 2011, 5% fewer than the number reported in 2010. As a
result, the hate crime rate declined from 4.1 to 3.9 incidents per
- About half (52%) of police-reported hate
crimes in 2011 were motivated by race or ethnicity. Another 25% were
related to religion and 18% to sexual orientation.
- Mischief was the most commonly reported
offence among police-reported hate crimes, making up half (50%) of all
hate crime incidents. Overall, the majority of hate crimes involved
- The proportion of police-reported hate crimes involving violent offences, such as assault
and uttering threats, grew from 34% in 2010 to 39% in 2011. Hate crimes
motivated by sexual orientation (65%) or race/ethnicity (41%) were the
most likely to involve violent offences.
- The majority of police-reported hate crime
incidents were concentrated in major cities. The ten largest cities
accounted for 51% of the Canadian population, but reported 64% of total
hate crimes. In 2011, the cities with the highest rates of
police-reported hate crime were Peterborough and Hamilton.
- In crimes motivated by hate, the accused were predominantly young and male. Among persons accused of hate crimes in 2011, 88% were male, and 60% were under age 25.
Labels: criminal law, human rights, police, statistics